The references page lists articles and papers relevant to users of dental equipment.

The page is regularly updated as we become aware of published material.

If you have published, or know of a paper suitable for inclusion in this list, please Contact Lucy Sherringham at DEM with details.



References: Apex Locators


Electronic Apex Locators and Conventional Radiograph in Working Length Measurement

Endodontic Radiology, Second Edition. Edited by Bettina Basrani. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012.

Malkhassian, Gevik; Plazas, Andres; Nahmias, Yosef


Comparison of Digital Radiography and Apex Locator with the Conventional Method in Root Length Determination of Primary Teeth

Journal of Indian Society of Periodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Volume 29, Issue 4, page 300-304, 2011

Neena IE, Ananthraj A, Praveen P, Karthik V, Rani P


REVIEW: Electronic Apex Locators

International Endodontic Journal, 37, 425–437, 2004

Gordon MPJ, Chandler NP


References: Burs


Burs and Diamonds: An Overview of the Opinions

Inside Dentistry, Volume 9, Issue 9, September 2013


The Effectiveness of New Diamond and Carbide Fissure Burs in Cutting Amalgam and Composite Materials

J Bagh College Dentistry, Vol. 20 (2), 2008

Angham C. Al-Hashimi


A Comparison of Decontamination Methods Used for Dental Burs

British Dental Journal, 197, 635-640, 2004

CL Whitworth, MV Martin, M Gallagher, HV Worthington